BAIKAL - BURYATIA: tourism and recreation

official website of the Republic of Buryatia in the field of tourism development

Chronology of the study of Baikal


110 BC. The first mention of the lake under the name "Beihai" in Chinese written sources.

VI-VIII centuries.The flowering of Kurumchin culture on Baikal.
X-XII centuries. Mongolian-speaking tribes expel Kurykans to the territories northern to Lake Baikal.
XI-XIV centuries. Tribes of Turkic and Tungus origin live at the territory of the Baikal region. At this time a new ethnic tribe – Khori, - appears.
XVII-XVIII centuries. The ethnicity of Buryatsforms on the shores of the lake.
1643 The exploration of Baikal by the first Russian detachment of Cossacks led by KurbatIvanov. The lake received its Russian name: Baikal.
1665 The Schismatic archpriest Avvakum passes throughTransbaikalia, giving one of the first artistically expressive literary descriptions of Baikal in his work "The Life of the Archpriest Avvakum."
1667 The first approximate map of Lake Baikal in the work "Drawing of the Siberian Land", compiled by the order of the Tobolskvoevoda(governor)P.Godunov.
1701 Cossack S.U. Remezov made the first correct scetch of the lake in the "Drawing Book of Siberia"
1729 г. PetertheGreatsendsscientistD. G. Messerschmidtto describe Siberia. Thefirstscientificdescriptionofthelake is made.
1844 г. Baikal Steamboats Company is organized. Firststeambots“Emperor Nikolay II” and “Tsesarevich Alexey” started navigation.
1862 Ten-point earthquake in the northern part of the Selenga river estuary, a land area of approximately 200 sq.km with 6 uluses (settlements) inhabited by 1,300 people drowned and a new gulf Proval was formed.
1898. Laying the railway to the port Baikal.
June 17, 1899. Launch of the Baikal ice-breaker, the second largest in the world at that time.
July 25, 1900 Descent of the icebreaker "Angara".
1900-1906 years. The Baikal ferry railway service operates.
1904 Railroad tracks were laid between the stations Baikal and Tankhoi along the ice of the lake, where wagons and locomotives were transported by horse-drawn draft.
1902-1905 Construction of theCircum-Baikal Railwaypart.
1908 Baikal atlas is published on 31 sheets (scale one versta (Russian mile) per inch).
1916 BarguzinskyNature Reservation is established, the first on Lake Baikal.
1916 Biological station was foundedin the villageKoty.
1925. A constantly operating research limnological station of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded in the village of. Maritoui.
1925-1929 The Baikal expedition under the guidance of the scientist G.Yu. Vereshchagin examined all the main areas of the lake.
1950-1958 The construction of the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station, which caused an increase in the water level of Lake Baikal on average by 1 m.
1958 In the south of Baikal, the city of Baikalsk is founded and the construction Baikalsky pulp mill starts.
1959. The depth of the lake is fixed at 1620 mby measuring from the ice with a cable line.
1961 On the basis of the Baikal Limnological Station, the Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences was created in the village Listvyanka.
1962 The ship "G.Yu.Vereshchagin" was built at the plant "LeninskayaKuznitsa" in Kiev. It became the largest research vessel on Lake Baikal. Its displacement is 560 tons, length is 43.6 meters, deck width is 7.8 meters.
1963 The first underwater filming of the life of Baikal organisms was made by the studio "Kievnauchfilm".
1966 Baikalsky Pulp and Paper Mill starts production.
1969-1975 A ban for omulfishery was imposed in order to restore its total biomass. At the same time, it is forbidden to raft the timber along the rivers that flow into Baikal and transport it in rafts along Lake Baikal.
1974 Echo soundings recorded the depth of the lake equal to1637 m.
1986 The Pribaikalsky and Zabaikalsky national parks, the Baikal-LenskyNational Reservationare founded.
1990 The motor rally "Camel Trophy Baikal-USSR`90" iscarried out on the shore of Lake Baikal
1990 The film about Lake Baikal "The Blue Eye of Siberia" is shot by English documentary filmmakers with the participation of the UNESCO.
1991. A special deep-water bathyscaphe "Pisces" immersed to the maximum depth of Lake Baikal - 1637 m.
1992. Constantly operating Governmental Commission for Baikal, coordinating activities for the preparation and implementation of the "Comprehensive Program for Ensuring the Protection and Rational Use of Natural Resources in the Lake Baikal Basin" was established.
1992. The first drilling on Baikal near the mouth of Buguldeika. The first core of bottom sediments with a length of 120 m was obtained.
1993. Baikal Museum of the SB RAS was created on the basis of the Museum of Limnological Institute.
1993. The scientific and reference atlas "Baikal" by the Russian Academy of Sciences on materials of long-term research 1961-1985 is published.
1993 A draft "Comprehensive Land Use Policy Program for the Russian Territory of the Lake Baikal Basin" ("Davis Associates", USA) has been prepared.
On December 9, 1995, the 1st International Tourism Fair "Baikal-Tour-95" was held, afterwards it became annual.
1996 LakeBaikalisincludedinthe UNESCO WorldHeritageList.
1996 Ulan-Ude hosts the International Scientific Symposium on Central Asian Shamanism and the first scientific conference "Conservation of Biodiversity of Lake Baikal"
1998. In the area of Ushkanii Islands, the deepest drilling at Lake Baikal (600 m) was carried out with ice-frozen platforms. The study of precipitation confirmed the existence of the lake during the last 15 million years.
1999, April. The "Law on Baikal" was adopted.
2008, April. The study of lake waters by deep-water bathyscaphes MIR 1 and MIR 2 is carried out.