The nature of Buryatia is characterized by a diversity of landscapes, geological conditions and peculiarities of the climate. Most of the territory of the Republic included in the water protection zone of lake Baikal basin.
The surface of the Buryatia Republic is presented for the most part is relatively flat srednegorja height 1200 -1700 m in the southern part of Buryatia and pointed ridges with altitude of 2200-2300 meters or more in the North-West and North of the country. Mountain ranges and uplands separated by hollows, the bottom of which is located at an altitude of 500-600 meters. The lowest place in Buryatia - the level of lake Baikal (456 m). The highest point is mount Munku-Sardyk, a height of 3491 metre.
The climate of Buryatia is sharply continental. The winter is lasting, frosty, with almost no wind and little snow. The exception is the coast of lake Baikal. Here, significantly mitigating the impact of the huge water mass of the lake. The average January temperature is -24-25 C. the Summer is short but warm, sometimes even hot. The average temperature of July is +17-18 C, but some days the temperature is +35-40 C. On the coast of lake Baikal the climate cooler. The maximum amount of precipitation is 250-300 mm per year in the mountains of 300-500 mm.
Buryatia is rich in water resources. There are about 9000 rivers and streams, which belong to the catchment area of lake Baikal and the basins of large Siberian rivers - the Yenisei and Lena. The Baikal basin can be attributed to the largest river, Buryatia - Selenga river, as well as a very interesting and unique rivers Barguzin, Upper Angara, snow, Turk, Chikoy, Khilok and other. In the Yenisey basin comprises four major rivers are the Oka, Kitoy, Belaya, Irkut. In the Lena basin flow into turbulent mountain rivers. It's The Vitim, Chicken, MUI.
There are number of lakes: goose-Bukovska, Eravninskiy, Bauntovskiy, the North-Baikalsky, Barguzinsky and others. The main resource is the lake Baikal.
Buryatia is extremely rich in mineral waters, variousx the chemical composition and physical properties. In total there are over 360 sources. Some of them studied and mastered. There are deposits of therapeutic mud and silt (mineral lake Kiran, Bormasheva, there is mud in the lake Kotokel).
The location of Buryatia is situated on the border of two different natural areas: the Eastern Siberian mountain taiga (4/5 of the territory) and the Central Asian steppe. This explains the great variety and peculiar character of the distribution of vegetation on its territory. The Northern slopes of the mountain ranges are mainly covered with larch forests with dense undergrowth and powerful moss litter, rarely pine and fir - pine forests.
On the southern slopes of the pine trees and thickets of xerophilous bushes. Steppe is mainly kovalkova and vostretsovo, often rise up to 900-1000 m Above the forest zone, upper limit of which is at an altitude of 1500-1600 from up to 2000 meters. Pine forests are widely distributed in Cisbaikalia, to the slopes of the Primorsky and Baikal ridges. Larch forests as opposed to pine, common in the Northern part of Transbaikalia. Cedar forests are concentrated in the highlands and Midlands.
The distribution of fir forests is quite narrow. Slightly spread and spruce forests. Widespread birch forests, they grow 60% of the ecosystems in the Baikal basin, but in limited spaces.