BAIKAL - BURYATIA: tourism and recreation

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Selenginsky district

The district borders on the Ivolginsky, Kabansky, Dzhidinsky, Kyakhta, Tarbagatai and Muhorshibir districts. The administrative center is the city of Gusinoozersk, located on the north-eastern shore of Lake Gusinoye, 110 km from Ulan-Ude.
The region was formed in 1923. The population is 45,711 people. The density of 5.7people/km.kv. The national compositionare the Buryats, the Russians. Confessional composition: Buddhists, Orthodox. The district borders on the Ivolginsky, Kabansky, Dzhidinsky, Kyakhta, Tarbagatai and Muhorshibir districts. The administrative center is Gusinoozersk, located on the north-eastern shore of Lake Gusinoye, 110 km from Ulan-Ude. The federal highway Ulan-Ude-Kyakhta and the East-Siberian railway to the neighboring state of Mongolia pass through the territory of the region. There was a "Gusinozerlag" on the territory of the district In the years 1940-1942.


Selenginsky district occupies the steppe southwestern part of the Gusin-Udinsky basin. The southern part of the area is heavily indented by the deep-water Selenga and its tributaries - the rivers Chikoy and Khilok. The climate of the region is sharply continental with severe winter and moderately warm summer. The diversity of landscapes contributes to the diversity of flora and fauna.
In the valley of the river Temnik is located the most extensive in Buryatia plantations of sea-buckthorn. The main natural landmark of the Selenga district is the Selenga River, the main tributary of Lake Baikal. Its basin is 2/3 of the Baikal basin, the total area of the Selenga catchment area is 447,060 square kilometers. km, and the source and 63% of the catchment area of the river are located on the territory of Mongolia.
The valley of the river is very picturesque. There are many places that are convenient for recreation. The river is navigable. Swimming on the tourist ships on it is not a problem. Swimming on motorized vessels is difficult only in the delta, where there are a lot of meadows and a duct. There are many lakes on the territory of the district, the largest ones: Gusinoye with a maximum depth of 25 m, a length of 25, a width of 8.5 km, and Lake Shchuchye. Nine rivers flow into Gusinoye, the largest Tsagangol and the only one flows - Bayangol. Shchuch'ye is one of the recreation places of the inhabitants of the republic, located in a convenient and accessible place - 11 km from the route Ulan-Ude-Kyakhta. There are recreation centers and children's health camps On the lake. There are nine mineral springs on the territory of the district, six of them come from the foot of the Khambin ridge.
The Selenga Valley is unusually poetic with its small sloping hills, smooth flow of rivers, spaciousness, a sense of belonging to a distant history, which is felt even in the nettle bushes that grow on the site of abandoned yurts. Especially typical of the Selenga landscapes are tile graves. The burials, which are three thousand years old, were oriented along the river, carefully laying the dead in a pit, placing inside objects that could be needed by a person in another life. These territories were inhabited by tribes who left after themselves the stone mounds-the sereks - either ritual structures, or burials. Around such burial mounds there are necessarily stone fences of the most varied shapes and sizes - squares, circles, intricate loops.
The steppe expanses of the Selenga Valley are also the focus of the monuments of the Hunnic era. Famous are the burial mounds of the tribal nobility of the Huns in Ilmova and Cheryomukhovy valleys, in the Padi Tsaram, on Orgeuton, the burial grounds of Dyrestuisky Kultuk and Ivolginsky, containing art bronzes made in the "bestial" style.
Mysterious and warlike Huns, united in a powerful alliance in the first millennium BC, created the first state in the history of Central Asia. The fertile land of Selenga has preserved a diverse and unique historical and cultural heritage. Historical cities, grown from Cossack prisons and trade settlements, emerged from the Buryat ulus and captured Russian peasants, absorbed the best architectural works of old masters. Their experience was embodied in the buildings of urban blocks and rural streets, the architecture of Buddhist datsans and Orthodox churches. Indispensable attributes of the landscapes of the Selenga Valley are Buddhist suburgans, Orthodox chapels and crosses.
The first Russian settlement in the Selenga Valley was the Selenga prison, founded by the Cossacks in 1665, and already in 1685 it is called a city. Selenginsk was also in the status of a district town of the Irkutsk province, and the district town of the Transbaikal region. In the first half of the XVIII century due to constant flooding, the population was forced to move the city to the left bank. The historical districts of Novoselenginsk (Selenginsk) are distinguished by the proportionality and comfort of the streets, the quality and proportionality of the buildings.
The beauty of the landscape, the possibilities of its viewing reveal the historical panorama: the revived Novoselenginsk, the Posad valley and the old Selenginsk with the destroyed Spassky Cathedral, the chapel and the grave of the commandant V. Jacobia, and the Chikoye arrow with the memory of the disgraced favorite of Peter I, Pushkin's great grandfather Hannibal, Abundant monuments of archeology and holy places.
Many natural monuments even in the names of their own have immortalized the events of ancient times, large and small. The quaint rock of the Englishwoman is a memory of the fact that in the nineteenth century an English missionary, Robert Yulle, appeared near Baikal, preaching the word of God. At Chikoyskaya arrows, diplomatic and trade missions to China and Mongolia halted among the rocks, for very often they had to wait a long time to receive a pass from Selenginsk. Sometimes it had important consequences for the history of Siberia. Thus, in 1721, Bishop Innokenty Kulchitsky set out on a mission to China. Someone reported to the Chinese authorities that this is a remarkable person and a high ecclesiastical face. Having held him unrequited in Selenginsk for a long time, officials of the neighboring state on behalf of the bogdykhan refused to Kulchitsky at the entrance to China, because in the empire only the ruler is called in the empire by the "high face" (as it was stated in the bishop's papers). Innocent Kulchitsky stayed in Siberia and did much to educate the Siberians, to plant in the land of faith and morality. Already in the XIX century, Innocent was canonized; In honor of him, the first Siberian saint, many Siberians bear the name Innokenty. But not because of constant diplomatic deceptions the mountain is called Deceptive.
In 1673 the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, the father of Peter I - the hetman of Left-bank Ukraine was exiled to Selenginsk, the enemy of the emperor, threatening to march to the side of the Turks, Demyan Mnogogreshnny. Over time, he was released from a log stable prison, he began to live, connected with his family, and even for a long time led the local Cossack garrison. Here he was, defending Selenginsk from the belligerent Buryats and Mongols, in one of the battles deceived the enemy by this dexterous tactical maneuver, hiding behind the hill reserve. Since then, the mountain is called Killed. Buddhism began to spread in the Selenga Valley, n the middle of the XVII century. The center of the spread of Buddhism in Buryatia was Tamchinsky (Gusinoozero) datsan. The cemetery was built (a dugan) in the beginning and in 1750 a wooden datsan was built in 1750. In the Tamchinsky datsan, the tradition of holding the Tzur-khurala has been respected for a long time-the magnificent service that has come from Tibet in masks and suits of Lamaist deities.
In the representation of the king participated 78 characters, divided into several groups. One can include masks of different animals, to another - masks of terrible deities, geniuses-keepers of the Buddhist faith. The third group includes characters representing different people - they are without masks, including the character Sagaan-Ubgan - the White Elder. This includes the spiritual patrons of the area. The costumes of the king are bright, colorful, sewn from expensive fabrics, silk, brocade. Characters of the tsar, dancing to the music, in time to her pronounce the texts of incantations. The secret meaning of this ancient ritual is still the property of Tibet. At present, the mystery was revived in the Tamchinsky datsan, held in early July and gathers many believers and curious people.
In Selenginsk district, a new object appeared - in front of. The turn, in the area of Baraniy Lug (Honyi Nyuga) - suburgans are placed in honor of the four Pandito Hambo Lam, the abbots of Tamchinsky datsan.


"Gold placer of Selenga" is the so-called integral part of the international project "The Great Tea Route" with a visit to the most attractive natural, cultural, sacred places in the area: Selenga jail and the first Buddhist monastery. The tour includes programs with the participation of the Selenga Cossack regiment and the ensemble "Ljubo", organization of the Cossack table, ritual rites, horseback riding along the Selenga beach, excursion to the museum of the Decembrists. "Weekend tour" is a one-day route along the Selenga part of the Tea way. Excursions to historical places: Selenginsk jail, visiting the Ascension Cathedral, Decembrists Museum, memorial complex, a monument to English missionaries - the cliff of the Englishwoman.