BAIKAL - BURYATIA: tourism and recreation

official website of the Republic of Buryatia in the field of tourism development

Zakamenskiy district


Zakamensky District borders on Dzhidinsky, Tunkinsky and Kabansky districts of Buryatia; it borders Mongolia to the south and the Irkutsk Region to the northeast.

Zakamensky district was founded in 1927. Itspopulationis 30,049 people.Thepopulationdensityis 1.98persq. km.The ethnic composition of the district: mostly Buryats, Russians. The administrative centeris the town of Zakamensk, founded in 1944. Its population is 15,000 people. The distance between Zakamensky District and Ulan-Ude is 420 km. The district borders on Dzhidinsky, Tunkinsky and Kabansky districts of Buryatia; it borders Mongolia to the south and the Irkutsk Region to the northeast.

The district is located in the southwestern part of Buryatia, in the Eastern Sayan Mountains, at an altitude of 700 to 1300 meters above sea level. The region has a mountainous terrain, with alternating ridges with smoothed watersheds and intermontane depressions; 60% of the area is covered with forests. In the highlands, there are thickets of cedar elfin. The tops of the mountains are covered with mosses and lichens. The area is rich in gold, tungsten, coal, ornamental raw materials (jade, marble, coils, listvenites), facing raw materials (labradorite, amozonite granites, landscape marbles and listvenites), building materials.The climate is sharply continental, with a long frosty winter and a short hot summer. In the summer, southern cyclones are frequent. The amplitude of seasonal temperature fluctuations reaches 53-55C, and the diurnal temperature reaches 15-20C.There are valuable fur-bearing animals in the area: sable, ermine, otter, relict musk deer, musk of which is required for the manufacture of valuable medicines, Siberian stag, whose horns also have some medicinal properties.Commercial species of animals: squirrel, Siberian striped weasel, roe deer, wild boar, musk deer, bear, capercaillie, hazel grouse, partridge. The pure cold water of the rivers of Zakamensky district is loved by some rare species of fish: grayling, goldilocksand taimen.

In 1976, the Snezhinsky State Reserve was established. Any huntis forbidden in the reserve. Along the whole reserve, there is a mountain river Snezhnaya. One third of the reserve is char - rocky peaks and a plateau at an altitude of 1400-2200 m. above sea level. The highest mark of the ridge is 2371 m. There are some rare birds listed in the Red Data Book: the Daurian crane, the black stork, the Falaban Falcon, the red duck, the whooping swan. On the territory of the reserve, by mandatory agreement with the administration,is allowed:

- collection of zoological, botanical, mineralogical and paleontological objects;

- recreational fishing;

-ecological tourism, conducting public cultural, educational, recreational, sports and other events, any forms of recreation of the population with the arrangement of bivouacs, tourist camps, any other camps in placesdesignated for this purpose, within the established time limits;

- participation of the representatives of educational institutions and public organizations, individuals and legal entities in the implementation of security, biotechnical, social and accounting activities, as well as attracting sponsorship for these activities;

- scientific research.

 

 

 

TOURISTATTRACTIONS

Uran-Dushe Mountain (Buryat: “skillful anvil”) is a natural monument, located at the junction of the boundaries of Zakamensky District, Tunkinsky national park and Mongolia. It covers the upper reaches of the valleys of the following rivers: Dzhida, Khokhyurta and Butu-Dzhida, Zun-Morin and Uha-Gol. On the rivers, there is an abundance of rapids, riffles and waterfalls. Zun-Morin and Dzhida rivers attract manyextreme boaters on rubber boats. Uran-Dushe Natural Park is an interesting place for water cruises and travels; this park is of a great tourist and recreational importance.

Legend has it that 99 blacksmiths-celestials descend to the mountain for competition in forging skill - on certain days by the lunar calendar, under the protection of the elements of fire and iron. Who will be lucky to see a purple-red glow on the top of the mountain, he will receive the protection and blessing of the heavenly blacksmiths. In the upper reaches of the Subutui River, flowing from the southern slopes of the Khongor-Uly ridge, there is a unique nature monument “Subutuisky Pillars”. For millions of years,weathering processes gave the shape of pillars to the rock formations. The diameter of the columns at the bottom is almost 2 m, and at the topit is a little over 1 m. At the foot of the Subutuisky pillars, at an altitude of about 1700 meters, curative mineral waters come to the surface: people use them for diseases of the respiratory system, heart, kidneys, liver and joints. Onarshan, there is a dwelling house and some bathrooms.

Next to one of the rocks, which is called“Miracle Rock”, once there was an eruption of clay, which has a dark-silver color and some healing properties.

In summer, the slopes of the ridge are full of cowberry, blueberry, black currant. Permanent inhabitants are bear, musk deer, roe deer, fur-bearing animals and birds.

The Dutulurska Rock in the area of Yukhta is a mountain ensemble of several rock formations. There is a source in the decline between the rocks. The rock is in the place where the two rivers meet: Yukhta and Dzhida. This rock is like a fortress; the volcanic rock has acquired a bizarre shape due to wind and rain. From the tops, you can see the panorama of the Dzhidinsky Range and the valley of the river with steep slopes, which is called among the people as “Grand Canyon”. It concedes to the great Colorado Grand Canyon only by size. This canyon was formed as a result of a volcanic eruption. Numerous volcanic rocks are scattered throughout the valley. The length of the canyon is 25 km. In the canyon, there are some picturesque cliffs of a bizarre shape. This place is considered one of the most beautiful places in Buryatia. You can admire the beauty of the “Grand Canyon” during the summer boat trip. Here you can often meet hoofed animals, and even a bear at a watering hole.

Under Baabai (Buryat: “tall, highly respected father”) is a natural monument, a high rocky mountain and three identical hills above the river, clinging to it.On the river side, all three hills form a steep rocky surface. Each hill is interesting in its own way. In the first hill, there is a cave. On the second, Barisaan, they welcome and see off the guests of the district. At the foot of the third one, there is a narrow goat path. On one side, there is a steep wall of stone – here you have nothing to grasp; and on the other - the abyss, where a swift river, so far below, flows. At the foot, there are two arshans. One of them helps people with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. And the second one, which drips like a tear, heals your eyes. Between the clefts of the cliffs there are clay deposits, they are useful for stomach ulcers.

The Engorboyskyarshan is 3.5 km from the village of Engorboy. There are 19 healing springs: they have sulfite-sodium composition, contain fluorine, silicic acid, radon, microelements of strontium, lithium, manganese, molybdenum and zinc. The temperature is 28-41С. It cures the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, rheumatism, hypertension, endoarthritis, polyarthritis, osteochondrosis, thyroid disease, gynecological and skin diseases, eczema and lichen.The treatment with leeches is used. The formation of flora and the originality of the climate were affected by hot waters and the closeness on all three sides. For more than two centuries, people know the healing properties of the Engorboyskyarshan, but the balance of this unique and closed ecosystem is not violated. Its protection is a natural barrier: the mountain river Dzhida and the legend of the mistress of these places, who gives people health - those people who have pure thoughts and good deeds. The treatment in arshanis carried outin summer only. The resort is designed for 60 people.

Saikhan (Clean) - 28 km from the village of Ulekchin, up the riverUlekchinka. Heals diseases of the intestinal tract and joints, bronchitis.

Khongor - 28 km from the village of Ulekchin, up the riverUtugtu. Heals angina, skin diseases, bronchitis. There is a treatment bath here.

Khatan (Tsaritsyna Mountain) - 2km from the village of Ulekchin. Heals flu, bronchitis, women's diseases.

The locals of Khuzhir call Kharkhatyn-arshan a pearl. Here, patients with intestinal diseases and liver diseases recover. Arshan improves metabolic processes. In addition to high-healing properties, the popularity of the source is givento it by the surrounding mountain landscape, healthy clean air saturated with ozone, and the aroma of herbs.

Adangyn-bulag treats cough, sore throat, gastrointestinal diseases. Nearby is the Sanaghinskydatsan. From the sources here, water is taken for sanctification, and for offerings to the Burkhans.

Adkhatay-bulag is on the south side of the Nomtogoloypass. At the bottom you can see basalt stones with voids (tonsils) filled with colorful chrysolite. Crystals are used for jewelry purposes, and strong grinders are also obtained. Near the village, at the mouth of a mountain riverMulistuy (eternal ice) is theMulistuymineral spring which has three water outlets. Each source cures certain diseases: respiratory tract, eyes. Sources strengthen and improve immunity. The temperature of the water is 1-1.5C.

In the XVIII century, a man named Khan came to the frontier through the Khamar-Dabansky ridge. The locals found in this namegodliness, a mind sent from the supreme authority. They put a house near the mountain and called it Khan-Uula. People perform rituals and prayers in honor of the mountain, before the winter, in August-September. At this time, people consume water from a mineral spring, located 500 m. from the mountain.

The Ulkhansagarshan is three kilometers from the village. This area is considered sacred for a long time. Here lamas-clergymen constantly lived, they prayed daily and thanked the skies, in favor of people suffering from various diseases. Healing source helps with diseases of joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, infertility. People who came to arshan, first of all, should perform a rite of worship to the spirit-owners of the area.

The Mangilaktaiarshan was originally hot. Local residents were very careful about the source, knowing its healing properties. However, one day the hunter from a stranger side, not knowing the local rules, defiled the source. He cooked meat in it. Since then, the source has become cold. The Mangilaktaiarshan treats gastrointestinal diseases. People scatter tents near the arshan and live there for weeks. The cattle breeders give this water to sick calves. Wild animals are treated at this source.

 

BUDDHISM IN ZAKAMENSKY 

Shamanism was commonin Zakamensky district during the Dolamaist period. In everyulus, there were cults of the owners of the area,every family had its own. With the spread of Buddhism, almost all of them were Lamaized. The connection to Buddhism occurred in the XIX century.

Then the construction of monasteries-datsans began. The first three datsans were built on the territory of the settlement of the khongodors: Kyrensky(1817), Tsezhe-Burgultaysky (1831), Sanaga-Bulaksky (1830).

The Sanaginskydatsan was one of the largest datsansin the whole area of the left bank of Selenga. A huge statue of Maidariwas brought to the datsan.

Buryatdatsans were often designed by Russian architects; Russian carpenters also participated in their construction. In 1854, the plan for the building of the BurgultaiDatsan was designed by the Irkutsk provincial architect. It had a shape of a cross, the first floor had a flat roof of a Tibetan pattern, the other two floors were completed by a Chinese roof. So were combined elements of Tibetan, Chinese and Russian designs. The Burgultaydatsan was a complex of temple structures made of stone and wooden houses. In 1930s, two datsans and a duganwere closed, it was forbidden to conduct divine services, and repressions of clergymen began.

Currently, the following datsans are active:Sanaginsky “DashaPuntsoglin” and Burgultaysky “DondupNorbulin”.

Zakamensky District borders onDzhidinsky, Tunkinsky and Kabansky districts of Buryatia; it borders Mongolia to the south and the Irkutsk Region to the northeast.

Zakamensky district was founded in 1927. Itspopulationis 30,049 people.Thepopulationdensityis 1.98persq. km.The ethnic composition of the district: mostly Buryats, Russians. The administrative centeris the town of Zakamensk, founded in 1944. Its population is 15,000 people. The distance between Zakamensky District and Ulan-Ude is 420 km. The district borders on Dzhidinsky, Tunkinsky and Kabansky districts of Buryatia; it borders Mongolia to the south and the Irkutsk Region to the northeast.The district is located in the southwestern part of Buryatia, in the Eastern Sayan Mountains, at an altitude of 700 to 1300 meters above sea level. The region has a mountainous terrain, with alternating ridges with smoothed watersheds and intermontane depressions; 60% of the area is covered with forests. In the highlands, there are thickets of cedar elfin. The tops of the mountains are covered with mosses and lichens. The area is rich in gold, tungsten, coal, ornamental raw materials (jade, marble, coils, listvenites), facing raw materials (labradorite, amozonite granites, landscape marbles and listvenites), building materials.The climate is sharply continental, with a long frosty winter and a short hot summer. In the summer, southern cyclones are frequent. The amplitude of seasonal temperature fluctuations reaches 53-55C, and the diurnal temperature reaches 15-20C.There are valuable fur-bearing animals in the area: sable, ermine, otter, relict musk deer, musk of which is required for the manufacture of valuable medicines, Siberian stag, whose horns also have some medicinal properties.Commercial species of animals: squirrel, Siberian striped weasel, roe deer, wild boar, musk deer, bear, capercaillie, hazel grouse, partridge. The pure cold water of the rivers of Zakamensky district is loved by some rare species of fish: grayling, goldilocksand taimen.In 1976, the Snezhinsky State Reserve was established. Any huntis forbidden in the reserve. Along the whole reserve, there is a mountain river Snezhnaya. One third of the reserve is char - rocky peaks and a plateau at an altitude of 1400-2200 m. above sea level. The highest mark of the ridge is 2371 m. There are some rare birds listed in the Red Data Book: the Daurian crane, the black stork, the Falaban Falcon, the red duck, the whooping swan. On the territory of the reserve, by mandatory agreement with the administration,is allowed:- collection of zoological, botanical, mineralogical and paleontological objects;- recreational fishing;-ecological tourism, conducting public cultural, educational, recreational, sports and other events, any forms of recreation of the population with the arrangement of bivouacs, tourist camps, any other camps in placesdesignated for this purpose, within the established time limits;- participation of the representatives of educational institutions and public organizations, individuals and legal entities in the implementation of security, biotechnical, social and accounting activities, as well as attracting sponsorship for these activities;- scientific research.


TOURISTATTRACTIONSUran-Dushe Mountain (Buryat: “skillful anvil”) is a natural monument, located at the junction of the boundaries of Zakamensky District, Tunkinsky national park and Mongolia. It covers the upper reaches of the valleys of the following rivers: Dzhida, Khokhyurta and Butu-Dzhida, Zun-Morin and Uha-Gol. On the rivers, there is an abundance of rapids, riffles and waterfalls. Zun-Morin and Dzhida rivers attract manyextreme boaters on rubber boats. Uran-Dushe Natural Park is an interesting place for water cruises and travels; this park is of a great tourist and recreational importance.Legend has it that 99 blacksmiths-celestials descend to the mountain for competition in forging skill - on certain days by the lunar calendar, under the protection of the elements of fire and iron. Who will be lucky to see a purple-red glow on the top of the mountain, he will receive the protection and blessing of the heavenly blacksmiths. In the upper reaches of the Subutui River, flowing from the southern slopes of the Khongor-Uly ridge, there is a unique nature monument “Subutuisky Pillars”. For millions of years,weathering processes gave the shape of pillars to the rock formations. The diameter of the columns at the bottom is almost 2 m, and at the topit is a little over 1 m. At the foot of the Subutuisky pillars, at an altitude of about 1700 meters, curative mineral waters come to the surface: people use them for diseases of the respiratory system, heart, kidneys, liver and joints. Onarshan, there is a dwelling house and some bathrooms.Next to one of the rocks, which is called“Miracle Rock”, once there was an eruption of clay, which has a dark-silver color and some healing properties.In summer, the slopes of the ridge are full of cowberry, blueberry, black currant. Permanent inhabitants are bear, musk deer, roe deer, fur-bearing animals and birds.The Dutulurska Rock in the area of Yukhta is a mountain ensemble of several rock formations. There is a source in the decline between the rocks. The rock is in the place where the two rivers meet: Yukhta and Dzhida. This rock is like a fortress; the volcanic rock has acquired a bizarre shape due to wind and rain. From the tops, you can see the panorama of the Dzhidinsky Range and the valley of the river with steep slopes, which is called among the people as “Grand Canyon”. It concedes to the great Colorado Grand Canyon only by size. This canyon was formed as a result of a volcanic eruption. Numerous volcanic rocks are scattered throughout the valley. The length of the canyon is 25 km. In the canyon, there are some picturesque cliffs of a bizarre shape. This place is considered one of the most beautiful places in Buryatia. You can admire the beauty of the “Grand Canyon” during the summer boat trip. Here you can often meet hoofed animals, and even a bear at a watering hole.Under Baabai (Buryat: “tall, highly respected father”) is a natural monument, a high rocky mountain and three identical hills above the river, clinging to it.On the river side, all three hills form a steep rocky surface. Each hill is interesting in its own way. In the first hill, there is a cave. On the second, Barisaan, they welcome and see off the guests of the district. At the foot of the third one, there is a narrow goat path. On one side, there is a steep wall of stone – here you have nothing to grasp; and on the other - the abyss, where a swift river, so far below, flows. At the foot, there are two arshans. One of them helps people with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. And the second one, which drips like a tear, heals your eyes. Between the clefts of the cliffs there are clay deposits, they are useful for stomach ulcers.The Engorboyskyarshan is 3.5 km from the village of Engorboy. There are 19 healing springs: they have sulfite-sodium composition, contain fluorine, silicic acid, radon, microelements of strontium, lithium, manganese, molybdenum and zinc. The temperature is 28-41С. It cures the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, rheumatism, hypertension, endoarthritis, polyarthritis, osteochondrosis, thyroid disease, gynecological and skin diseases, eczema and lichen.The treatment with leeches is used. The formation of flora and the originality of the climate were affected by hot waters and the closeness on all three sides. For more than two centuries, people know the healing properties of the Engorboyskyarshan, but the balance of this unique and closed ecosystem is not violated. Its protection is a natural barrier: the mountain river Dzhida and the legend of the mistress of these places, who gives people health - those people who have pure thoughts and good deeds. The treatment in arshanis carried outin summer only. The resort is designed for 60 people.Saikhan (Clean) - 28 km from the village of Ulekchin, up the riverUlekchinka. Heals diseases of the intestinal tract and joints, bronchitis.Khongor - 28 km from the village of Ulekchin, up the riverUtugtu. Heals angina, skin diseases, bronchitis. There is a treatment bath here.Khatan (Tsaritsyna Mountain) - 2km from the village of Ulekchin. Heals flu, bronchitis, women's diseases.The locals of Khuzhir call Kharkhatyn-arshan a pearl. Here, patients with intestinal diseases and liver diseases recover. Arshan improves metabolic processes. In addition to high-healing properties, the popularity of the source is givento it by the surrounding mountain landscape, healthy clean air saturated with ozone, and the aroma of herbs.Adangyn-bulag treats cough, sore throat, gastrointestinal diseases. Nearby is the Sanaghinskydatsan. From the sources here, water is taken for sanctification, and for offerings to the Burkhans.Adkhatay-bulag is on the south side of the Nomtogoloypass. At the bottom you can see basalt stones with voids (tonsils) filled with colorful chrysolite. Crystals are used for jewelry purposes, and strong grinders are also obtained. Near the village, at the mouth of a mountain riverMulistuy (eternal ice) is theMulistuymineral spring which has three water outlets. Each source cures certain diseases: respiratory tract, eyes. Sources strengthen and improve immunity. The temperature of the water is 1-1.5C.In the XVIII century, a man named Khan came to the frontier through the Khamar-Dabansky ridge. The locals found in this namegodliness, a mind sent from the supreme authority. They put a house near the mountain and called it Khan-Uula. People perform rituals and prayers in honor of the mountain, before the winter, in August-September. At this time, people consume water from a mineral spring, located 500 m. from the mountain.The Ulkhansagarshan is three kilometers from the village. This area is considered sacred for a long time. Here lamas-clergymen constantly lived, they prayed daily and thanked the skies, in favor of people suffering from various diseases. Healing source helps with diseases of joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, infertility. People who came to arshan, first of all, should perform a rite of worship to the spirit-owners of the area.The Mangilaktaiarshan was originally hot. Local residents were very careful about the source, knowing its healing properties. However, one day the hunter from a stranger side, not knowing the local rules, defiled the source. He cooked meat in it. Since then, the source has become cold. The Mangilaktaiarshan treats gastrointestinal diseases. People scatter tents near the arshan and live there for weeks. The cattle breeders give this water to sick calves. Wild animals are treated at this source.
BUDDHISM IN ZAKAMENSKY Shamanism was commonin Zakamensky district during the Dolamaist period. In everyulus, there were cults of the owners of the area,every family had its own. With the spread of Buddhism, almost all of them were Lamaized. The connection to Buddhism occurred in the XIX century.Then the construction of monasteries-datsans began. The first three datsans were built on the territory of the settlement of the khongodors: Kyrensky(1817), Tsezhe-Burgultaysky (1831), Sanaga-Bulaksky (1830).The Sanaginskydatsan was one of the largest datsansin the whole area of the left bank of Selenga. A huge statue of Maidariwas brought to the datsan.Buryatdatsans were often designed by Russian architects; Russian carpenters also participated in their construction. In 1854, the plan for the building of the BurgultaiDatsan was designed by the Irkutsk provincial architect. It had a shape of a cross, the first floor had a flat roof of a Tibetan pattern, the other two floors were completed by a Chinese roof. So were combined elements of Tibetan, Chinese and Russian designs. The Burgultaydatsan was a complex of temple structures made of stone and wooden houses. In 1930s, two datsans and a duganwere closed, it was forbidden to conduct divine services, and repressions of clergymen began.Currently, the following datsans are active:Sanaginsky “DashaPuntsoglin” and Burgultaysky “DondupNorbulin”.